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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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African Americans

by Roberta Sue Alexander, Rodney D. Barfield, and Steven E. Nash, 2006.
Additional research provided by Joseph W.Wescott II and Wiley J. Williams.

Part i: Introduction; Part ii: Life under slavery and the achievements of free Black people; Part iii: Emancipation and the Freedmen's Fight for Civil Rights; Part iv: Segregation and the struggle for equality; Part v: Emerging roles and new challenges; Part vi: References

Part vi: References

Roberta Sue Alexander, North Carolina Faces the Freedmen: Race Relations during Presidential Reconstruction, 1865–1867 (1985).

Eric Anderson, Race and Politics in North Carolina, 1872–1901: The Black Second (1981).

Lerone Bennett Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America (1993).

William H. Chafe, Raymond Gavins, and Robert Korstad, eds., Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell about Life in the Segregated South (2001).

Jeffrey J. Crow, Paul D. Escott, and Flora J. Hatley, A History of African Americans in North Carolina (2002).

W. McKee Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails: Reconstruction on the Lower Cape Fear (1966).

John Hope Franklin, The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790–1860 (1943).

Franklin and Alfred A. Moss Jr., From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans (6th ed., 1988).

Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920 (1996).

Herbert G. Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750–1925 (1976).

Timothy J. Minchin, Hiring the BlackWorker: The Racial Integration of the Southern Textile Industry, 1960–1980 (1999).

R. Drew Smith, Long March Ahead: African American Churches and Public Policy in Post–Civil Rights America (2004).

Timothy B. Tyson, Blood Done Sign My Name: A True Story (2004).

Walter B. Weare, Black Business in the New South: A Social History of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company (rev. ed., 1993).

Additional resources:

Bradford, Erin. 2008. "Free African American Population in the U.S.: 1790-1860." Online at