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This article is from the Encyclopedia of North Carolina edited by William S. Powell. Copyright © 2006 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. For personal use and not for further distribution. Please submit permission requests for other use directly to the publisher.

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Cherokee Indians

by William L. Anderson and Ruth Y. Wetmore, 2006
Additional research provided by John L. Bell.

Part i: Overview; Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact; Part iii: Disease, destruction, and the loss of Cherokee land; Part iv: Revolutionary War, Cherokee defeat and additional land cessions; Part v: Trail of Tears and the creation of the Eastern Band of Cherokees; Part vi: Federal recognition and the fight for Cherokee rights; Part vii: Modern-day Cherokee life and culture; Part viii: References and additional resources

Part i: An overview

Goingback Chiltoskey carving animal figures from wood, 1967. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.Cherokee Indians once occupied an area encompassing approximately 140,000 square miles that became parts of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. The Cherokee thrived in North Carolina well into the late eighteenth century, but as Euro-American settlers steadily moved into and near Cherokee lands, sharp conflicts arose between Cherokees and whites and between Cherokees themselves, as leaders with competing claims to speak for the tribe secured treaties and formed other agreements with white settlers that were not acknowledged by all Cherokee people. In 1838-39, the U.S. government forcibly removed the Cherokee from their lands in North Carolina, leading them on the infamous Trail of Tears to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). A small number of Cherokee people successfully resisted removal, however, by claiming North Carolina citizenship and by maintaining the right to remain on lands they owned. These people and their descendants were recognized in 1868 by the federal government as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. In the early 2000s these Cherokee, living on the Qualla Boundary in the western part of the state, were the only Indian tribe in North Carolina fully recognized by the federal government. The tribe has more than 13,000 enrolled members.



Keep reading > Part ii: Cherokee origins and first European contact keep reading

Update from N.C. Government & Heritage Library staff: 

The Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians is self-governed and autonomous.  Governance is by tribal council.  The Principal Chief as of 2018 was Richard Sneed.  His name is the latest in the list of Cherokee leaders, his predecessors being Yonaguska, William Holland Thomas, Salonitah (or Flying Squirrel), Lloyd R. Welch, Nimrod Jarrett Smith, Stillwell Saunooke, Andy Standing Deer, Jesse Reed, Bird Saloloneeta (or Young Squirrel), John Goins Welch, Joseph A. Saunooke, David Blythe, Sampson Owl, John A. Tahquette, Jarret Blythe, Henry Bradley, Osley Bird Saunooke, Walter Jackson, Noah Powell, John A. Crowe, Robert S. Youngdeer, Jonathan L. Taylor, Gerard Parker, Joyce Dugan, Leon Jones, Michell Hicks, and Patrick Lambert.

--Research Branch, North Carolina Office of Archives and History, 2018.


Eastern Band of Cherokee Website:



i would like to know what information there is on Aquillia McCracken who married Nancy Lane as their son John McCracken was in the all Indian company from Ok during WW1 ??


Hello! I think you need to start your search in OK then. Perhaps looking at tribal rolls like the Dawes rolls, etc, might be a good place to start. 

Erin Bradford, Government and Heritage Library


I have traced my ancestors back to Rutherford County, North Carolina. My GG Grandmother was Elizabeth (Horn) Roach who married Perry Roach in the presence of father Daniel Horn, Littleberry Roach and John Roach March 22, 1823. Does anyone know of any connection with the Eastern Band or Oklahoma Cherokee Nation? I have found several Roach and Horn names on the Dawes and Baker rolls. Best wishes and kindest regards.


Hello, I am interested in a Josephine Dockery (maiden name McMillian). She applied for inclusion to the Cherokee nation in the Dawes roll, but her application was rejected. How do I find the file or "jacket" for her application. I wanted to know which person(s) she identified as her parent(s). I think that the card number for her is #317.


Fold3 has free native records now through Nov 15, not sure what they have for Dawes rolls.

Also try ...DAWSE roll is NOT on there yet, this is a free site.

Good luckl!


Thank you so much for posting that. We also provide access to Fold3 to people who have a GHL library card. NC residents are eligible to receive a card at no cost. To apply, please visit



Kelly Eubank

Government and Heritage Library


Hello, I am interested in a Josephine Dockery (maiden name McMillian). She applied for inclusion to the Cherokee nation in the Dawes roll, but her application was rejected. How do I find the file or "jacket" for her application. I wanted to know which person(s) she identified as her parent(s). I think that the card number for her is #317.


I am try to find out when/if a Cherokee reservation was established in NC.


My Grandmother was Cherokee. Would love to know more. She was Anna (Annie) Laura Barefoot. She was raised by Mary Barefoot and family after her Father was shot in the head and killed. This happened when she was just a newborn when her mother wasbreast feeding her. They were all in bed when someone came in and shot him. The family story goes that my great grandmother had lived thru "a massacare" previously and this sent her over the edge. She was "hospitalized for the rest of her life and my grandmother was given to Mary to raise. Would love to know if Mary was family or what. And more about the shootings.


Dear Lorrie,

Thanks for visiting NCpedia. I am going to forward your questions to the Government & Heritage reference team. Please let us know if you have any other questions.

Francesca Evans, Government & Heritage Library

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